As indicated previously, a number of English makers built both harmoniums and American style reed organs. In this case we will provide a brief history of the company in the present chapter and then simply list some of their instruments in the next chapter. Harmoniums were also referred to by many English builders, especially the early ones, as seraphines. There is a separate chapter on genuine seraphines which have several important differences. It was actually Alexandre Debain in France who invented and introduced the name Harmonium.
It is considered that Gilbert Bauer was the best English builder of harmoniums. A large one with ten full sets of reeds belonged to organ builder David Frostick (sold 2010). After Bauer, Evans, Kelly and Hillier were of similar good quality, comparable to all except the best French instruments, but not coming close to those of Mustel. All these made instruments for exhibition and special orders and they were involved in improvements to the basic design. I do not believe that there were any English reed makers, so these were bought in from Paris and made by Estève, Thurban or Mainguet. Keyboards however were made in England, by manufacturers who supplied for harmonium, organ and pianoforte makers. Of these H. Brooks and Co. is probably the best known. Many components could be bought in via the famous suppliers J. & J. Goddard who were based in Tottenham Court Road, London, near to many of the factories of the industry.
You will see that many firms were located in north London, particularly around the Euston, Camden Town and Kentish Town areas. Piano manufacture in Britain had started in London's West End but moved first to Tottenham Court Road and then to Camden Town. Famous firms included Collard and Collard, Brinsmead and Challen, This encouraged other less well known firms to set up nearby. An account of the pianoforte manufacturing industry which took hold there is given on this Web site http://www.locallocalhistory.co.uk/industrial-history/piano/page1.htm. I believe that the harmonium manufacturers were often the same firms and took advantage of the same suppliers, so also frequented this area.
The business relationships between some of the London pianoforte makers who also made Seraphines and early Harmoniums is noted in Chapter 3. The following figure extends this with additional information showing how some of the better Harmonium making firms around London might have worked together.
William Benjamin Thomas Adams of 4 Hockley Hill, Birmingham is described as an organ and harmonium builder in the Musical Directory .
Exhibited a harmonium teaching device at the Musical and Ecclesiastical Exhibition of 1892.
Made keyboards for harmoniums and organs with steam works at 1 Nisbet Place, High Street, Homerton, London
William J. Allen was an harmonium and piano manufacturer and dealer located at 8 Bread Street and from 1895 on 6 Rose Street, Wokingham, Berkshire. He was also organist of St. Paul's, Wokingham in 1895.
Allison Pianos was founded in 1837 at 29 Berners Street, London. Other premises of the company were at 49 Wardour Street, Soho, London (1839) and 75 Dean Street (1846), also in Soho. In 1840 a shop was located at 106 Wardour St., Soho, London, but this was just a retail outlet. In 1851 they opened a shop at 34 Brook Street and in 1856 a new factory was opened at 1a Warrington Street, Somerstown, London.
An 110 Wardour Street address is also found on labels. c.1872
From 1879 on, the company was called Arthur Allison and Co. and located at 171 Wardour Street, while the factory on Warrington Street was still in use. In 1907 they moved to Prebend Street in Camden Town. In 1911 the company changed its name to Allison and Allison and two years later opened shops at Leighton Road, Kentish town, 10 Charlton King's Road and Prebend Street. In 1923 they had locations at 56 and 60 Wigmore Street and in 1929 they opened at 56 Chalk Farn Road, Leighton Road, Kentish Town and 60 Wigmore Street. Later that year they were taken over by Chappell. They also sold pianos under the name of Globe.
Another note says: Arthur Allison founded a business in 1872 at 110 Wardour Street, Soho from 1872-90 and 10 Charlton King's Road, Kentish Town, London until 1906 to manufacture pianos, harmoniums and American organs. They had a factory known as ``Apollo Works'' in Leighton Road, Kentish Town. They however quickly concentrated on the piano. Nevertheless at this date they carried out extensive advertising as sole London agent for Ramsden's (Dawes' patent) ``Melody Organs'' and Dawes and Ramsden's ``Patent Pedal Substitute Organs''.
London Gazette 13/7/1880: Is the Matter of Proceedings for Liquidation by Arrangement or Composition with Creditors, instituted by Walter Stewart Murdoch, of Esmore Road, Woodside, South Norwood, in the county of Surrey, and James Arthur Allison, of 2, Clarence Chambers, Marylebone Road, in the county of Middlesex, Pianoforte, Harmonium, and American Organ Manufacturers, and Co-partners, trading under the style or firm of Arthur Allison and Company, at 40, Great Marlborough Street and the Apollo Works, Leighton Road, Kentish Town, both in the county of Middlesex. Notice is hereby given, that a First General Meeting of the creditors of the above named persons has been summoned to be held at the offices of Messrs. Andrews and Mason, situated at Nos. 7 and 8, Ironmonger Lane, in the city of London, on the 4th day of August, 1880, at three o'clock in the afternoon precisely. Dated this 9th day of July, 1880. Chorley, Crawford, and Chester, 34 and 36, Moorgate Street, City, Solicitors for the Debtors.
The model types advertised varied in price for oak, rosewood to walnut cases and were as follows.
* A.A. would draw special attention to this instrument. Its great advantages being, smallness of size (19'' from back to front, 34'' high), power and quality equal to an instrument double its size.
1M e-Bay *0093
A 1M instrument was advertised on e-Bay by the vendor in Lincoln and said to be completely original with mahogany case. It seems to have ivory keys with wooden fronts, which as is often the case have changed shape with age, so could be from the early period c.1872.
It carries the Allison label (above) which reads:
Arthur Allison 110 Wardour Street, London, W. The Broad Reed Organ manufactured expressley for James Dolman ..... ..... ..... Chenies, Rickmansworth.
The d'Almaine company started making pianos c.1785. They were piano manufacturers until at least 1916. In 1850 they were advertising Royal Harmoniums from 20 Soho Square, London. These had from 1 to 6 rows of reeds and could also be had combined with a pianoforte. W.H. Barnes (below) appears to have been a retailer for d'Almaine pianos. Thomas d'Almaine the reed organ builder died in 1877. There was also Goulding and d'Almaine. See also Chapter 22.
They also retailed a variety of musical instruments and music scores from their premises at 104 New Bond Street, London, W.
An advertisment for D'Almaine harmoniums in various forms from small to large is shown by Ord-Hume , figure 4, p28.
It is known that d'Almaine was an agent for Alexandre and sold a number of their harmoniums in the 1860s. One has been restored by Louis Huivenaar for an Australian owner and another is in USA.
Claudius Bailey of 1-3 Chalfont Road, Holloway, N. London, made Sunday School Union organs possibly later using American made actions and only making his own bellows and cases.
We are seeking more information - the following is based on a Sunday School Union advertisement from 1898.
We are now aware of a number of instruments sold by the Sunday School Union, see 29. It is believed that some were built by R.F. Stevens, so this section may be re-organised as we gather further evidence.
This one belonged to Mary Ann Tarver in London. She had owned it for quite a long time and played it regularly.
I agreed to buy it as she was moving into a small flat, and eventually took delivery on 4/9/2011. The four octave keyboard is stamped ``Brooks Ltd. 2567'' and the instrument case 13741 but there are no other maker's marks. I subsequently sold this to Rev. Tony Newnham in Bradford. His video of Christmas carols is on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL64B80A9AA96BA49A.
After seeing the video, Rosalie Wainwright sent photos of an instrument they have in the Woodville museum. This has labels from English retailers: James Smith & Son, Music Sellers Limited, Liverpool, Southport and Berlin; and Walter F. Furness, Musical Instrument Dealer, Southport.
This is a most unusual instrument as it has five stops below the keyboard, otherwise similar to the above.
Rosalie told me that the stops are as follows: Clarinette, Voix Celeste, Flute 4' [not original label], Sourdine, Tremolo. The first and third are half each breaking between numbers 19 and 20. The rest go right through. She believes it may have been built by R.F. Stevens c.1881.
This next one has the John G. Murdoch & Co. label. It was offered for sale in Dec'2009 by the seller in Beverly Hills, USA.
W.H. Barnes was founded c.1828 and also sold pianos under the names of Normelle, Osbert, and D'Almaine. They had premises at 502-4 Oxford Street, London from around 1828-1937. It's not too clear if they made their own at first or just branded other makes, in any case they were a large London retailer. Later on in the 1900s they did use the Kemble and Monington names.
Later the address was given as W.H. Barnes, Pianoforte Manufacturers, Head Office, 36-38 Peckham Road, London SE5. The directors were E. Barnes, D.D. Hancock, N.J. Skinner, M.B. Mast, P.E. Thompson Hancock, F. Clifton Hilberry.
Another note says: Barnes of 59 Walworth Road, S.E. London and 20 New Kent Road was a piano and harmonium maker, tuner and repairer. They probably discontinued organ production before 1921.
The following 49 note folding organ carries the label of Barnes and Mullins, London W. Its stops are Diapason (top left); Horn (bottom left); Flute (top right); Piccolo (bottom right).
See Chapter 5.
J. Baynton and Co. had various premises at 23 Bayford Street, Mare Street and 2 Well Street, Hackney, E. London (near London Fields Station). They advertised originally as manufacturers of harmoniums and harmonium pans. They also made the New Portable Harmonium advertised in 1880. They are recorded in 1883 as manufacturing reed organs, Jordan's transposing harmonium, portable harmoniums and reed pans. They used brass reeds bought in from Thurban, Paris.
I have had this small harmonium with 1-1/2 sets of reeds since 1972. It is a very simple, but pleasing instrument to play with quick responsive action, excellent for practice. Stops are: Forte, Sourdine, Cor Anglais, Expression, Flute, Voix Celeste, Tremulant, Forte.
Colour pictures of my Baynton harmonium show the order of assembly of the major components. These pictures were taken after moving it up a narrow flight of stairs in my house in Oct'2007.
Thomas Beasant was a harmonium maker at 17 Portugal Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, London around 1865, at 11 Kirby Street, Hatton Gardens in 1867, 32 Manchester Street, King's Cross 1879-82, 30a Argyle Street in 1882 and 35 Orchard Street, Ball's Pond in 1900. in 1865 they advertised: Beasant's £3-10s portable harmoniums have full sized keys, large vibrators, superior tone, hand and foot blowers. Harmoniums with two rows of keys and pedals, best quality, prices low. And Pedal Harmoniums, with couplers, pounds 12-10/5 Portable Harmoniums, apounds 3-10s; all others equally cheap and good. 17, Portugal-street, Lincoln's-inn, London. A year later: Beasant's Harmoniums, with Patent Vibrators, superior tone, from 3 to 35 guineas. Send for a list. 11, Kirby-street, Hatton-garden, London.
e-Bay item 31/10/2006
A small harmonium by Besant [sic] and from c.1865 was advertised 31/10/06. It has three stops: Expression, Forte, Tremolo.
Dan Bedford was a harmonium maker at 326 Goswell Road, London.
Joseph Bedford of 66 Weedington Street, Kentish Town, London NW was another harmonium maker.
Another F. Bedford is recorded at 7 Jeffreys Place, London in 1900. It is not known if the Bedfords were related.
The firm of George Bedwell and Sons is described in Chapter 22.9.
Joseph Bell (b.1823-d.1898) of York was the son of a cabinet maker and became apprenticed to Robert Postill, a well known organ builder of Colliergate, York from 1832 onwards. He built some pipe organs and barrel organs, but specialised in seraphines (see Chapter 3) and later harmoniums. Owing to the demand for these instruments for small churches, school rooms and private houses, Joseph Bell's enterprises were published in The Yorkshire Gazette and directories such as White's Directory of Hull and the City of York (1857). See Laurence Elvin's book Family Enterprise, the Story of some North Country Organ Builders .
Joseph Bell liked to try different methods of manufacture using wood, ivory, German silver and other metals for reeds. A harmonium with wooden reeds was marketed in 1866. He also made self playing instruments. His seraphines are described in Chapter 3.
The London Gazette 25/3/1859 notes an appearance in York county court (reason not specified): Joseph Bell, late of no.20, Gillygate, previously of Charles Street, Clarence Street, theretofore of no.17, Union Terrace, and formerly of no.59, Gillygate, occupying shops at no.57, Gillygate, all in the city of York, Organ Builder, Harmonium Manufacturer, and Musical Instrument Dealer.
The firm was at first known simply as Joseph Bell, but later J. Bell and Sons and S. Bell York. They operated at Petergate, York in 1847, moved to 57 Gillygate in 1849, then 24 Gillygate in 1861, 22 Feasegate in 1863 and had workshops at 28 Swinegate with additional premises at 17 Union Terrace around 1857. Joseph Bell died in 1898 afer which the firm ceased to exist. Samuel Bell traded from around 1893-97 and was at 14 Stonegate, York. However Ord-Hume  referred to Sarah Bell rather than Samuel. It is thought that Sarah was Joseph's wife, and that she took over the business at Stonegate to build and restore harmoniums and sell antiques from 1894 to around 1906.
Bell exhibited at the 1862 London International Exhibition an harmonium with wood reeds and pedals, two octaves; also an instrument containing bassoon, oboe, and clarionet, in the shape of a cioloncello, with two rows of keys and wood reeds.
The London Gazette of 30/11/1886 carried the following entry: Notice is hereby given, that the Partnership heretofore subsisting between us the undersigned, Samuel Luke Bell and William Bell, carrying on the business of Organ, Harmonium, and Pianoforte Manufacturers, at no.14, Stonegate, in the city of York, under the style or firm of Bell Brothers, has been dissolved, by mutual consent, as from the 17th day of November, 1886, and that the said business will in future be carried on by the said Samuel Luke Bell alone: and that he will receive and pay all accounts due to and from the said partnership. Dated this 17th day of November, 1886. Samuel Luke Bell. William Bell.
Saltaire Museum - ROS DB entry 371
A portable harmonium by Bell is registered number 371 in the ROS database. It has 54 keys CC-f'' and no stops. This is probably the same instrument that is in the Saltaire Museum. It is dated 1864 on number 1 pallet. The keys were made by H. Brooks and Co. as is stamped on one key. The bellows are under the treadles and air is carried up the hollow sides to the sprung reservoir under the keyboard. The case is made from cherry wood.
A piano and harmonium maker of 62 Norfolk Terrace, Westbourne Grove, W. London.
Bentley of Small Heath - further details unknown. Of course there is also the Bentley piano making firm.
ROS DB entry 287
Another small harmonium with no stops is registered number 287 in the ROS DB. It is Bentley serial number 17338 and has FF-f'' key range. It is located in the Heisshaus Pump Organ Museum between Hastings and Charlotte, Michigan, USA.
Samuel Benton was a harmonium maker at Sheepscar Street, Stanhope Square, Leeds. This is now a main road in Leeds city centre - Stanhope Sq. no longer exists.
A manufacturer of portable harmoniums working at 9 Whitfield Street off Tottenham Court Road, London in 1900, 20 Whitfield Street in 1914 and 39 Store Street in 1921.
Blount of 32 King Street, Derby was for a short period a harmonium manufacturer.
Albert Bock of 41a Southampton Road, Kentish Town, London advertised cheap oak cased harmoniums with 7 stops and 1 set of reeds for £7.
See Chapter 4.1.
Piano and harmonium manufacturer and dealer of 194 Mare Street, Hackney.
Browns received an honorable mention at the Paris Exhibition of 1878 for good value and sweet sounding harmoniums.
Charles Cadby was a piano and harmonium maker operating at 21 Alfred Street, Bedford Street, London in 1839, 33-1/2 Liquorpond Street in 1848, Little Tothill Street, off Gray's Inn Lane in 1867 and Hammersmith Road from 1874. He exhibited at the 1862 London International Exhibition alongside a number of other manufacturers of the time. He is mainly known as a pianoforte maker with several important patents. Their instruments were exhibited on stand 471 class X in the 1851 Great Industrial Exhibition. A drawing of Cadby's ``Grand Pianoforte'' is shown in the book by Peter and Ann MacTaggart .
Unlike most of the manufacturers we have featured, quite a lot is known about Cadby's premises at Cadby Hall on Hammersmith Road. This is because it was bought by the expanding Lyons catering empire in July 1894. Both the original showroom and former manufacturing buildings remained in use, albeit greatly altered, until the 1980s when the whole site was demolished and re-developed. For photographs and more details, see http://www.kzwp.com/lyons/cadbyhall.htm and http://www.pianoshop.co.uk/info/pianos/c/cadby.php.
George Camp of 106 Euston Road, London, moving to 59 Gloucester Road, Regent's Park in 1879, was a piano and harmonium manufacturer. In 1864 he advertised: CAMP'S 5 stop Harmonium in polished mahogany case, spiral columns, full compass, organ tone. Price seven guineas. Harmoniums from £4-4s. Dealers supplied. And in 1865: Superior Harmoniums in polished mahogany cases, 5 stops for £7-7/-; in walnut, 7 stops for £8-8/-. He submitted a patent application for improvements to the construction in 1871 at which time he was noted as a harmonium maker of 131 Whitfield Street, Fitzroy Square.
Herbert Carloss was a harmonium and American organ manufacturer recorded at 133 Dartmouth Park Hill, Highgate in 1886 and 45 Holloway Road, N. London in 1896. He died in 1898.
London Gazette 19/5/1889 Herbert Carloss, Deceased. All persons having any claims against the estate of Herbert Carloss, of 29 Poynings Road and 133 Dartmouth Park Hill, London, Harmonium and Organ Manufacturer, deceased (who died on the 23rd February, 1889, and whose will was duly proved by George Guy White, the sole executor therein named, on the 16th March, 1889), are hereby required to send in particulars of their claims to the undersigned, on or before 20th May, 1889, after which day the said executor will proceed to distribute the assets of the said deceased among the parties entitled thereto, having regard only to the claims of which notice shall then have been received. Dated 16th April, 1889. Walter Maskell, 7, Great James Street, Bedford Row, London, Solicitor for the said Executor.
Carr's of London advertised superior quality English harmoniums. Was this Thomas Carr? If so there is an instrument in the Piano History Centre (re. Bill Kibby).
R. Carr [need to check if its the same firm] were concertina makers.
Piano and harmonium maker of 319 Goswell Road, London E and 1 Finsbury Road, Wood Green, N. London. In 1864 was known as the cheapest house in the trade. A 3-stop instrument in a walnut case was available for 7 guineas.
A small one with no stops appeared on e-Bay *9367 in Suffolk, Aug'2010. It has a mahogany case and measures 38'' x14'' x29''. It was noted as an ``English Model'' and has a soft sweet tone.
Piano, harmonium and organ manufacturer of 57 Long Millgate, Manchester and 136-8 Hampstead Road, London.
A harmonium maker of 12 Market Place, Oxford Market, London.
William and James Chilvers of Bedford Street, St. Andrews, Norwich were organ and harmonium makers. They started as Chilvers Brothers around 1872, became Wm. and Jas. Chilvers in 1875 and then Chilvers and Nephews in 1879. It was not sure if they were brothers or if in fact William was the nephew of James.
I was therefore pleased to be contact by Julian Chilvers in Oct'2007. He says: William Chilvers was my great great grandfather. He was born in Norwich in 1809 and worked initially as a weaver. In 1841 he moved to Halesworth in Suffolk and in White's 1844 Directory is listed as a musical instrument maker and music teacher. In 1851 he was described as a master turner. On my great grandfather's marriage certificate in 1855 he is described as a musician and by 1861 as a music master. Sometime between 1861 and 1871 he returned to Norwich and in 1871 was living in Belvoir Street with his nephew James (actually William James the son of his brother James) and both are described as musical instrument makers. Harrod's Norwich and Lowestoft Directory of 1872 lists W. & J. Chilvers, Bedford Street Norwich under Pianoforte and Music Warehouses. William died in 1878 and in 1881 and 1891 his nephew William James was just listed as a music seller living in St. Stephen Street, Norwich. William James Chilvers died in 1896. I believe William's brother James died in 1870 and I wasn't aware that he was directly connected with the business.
William Clark was a harmonium maker from Little Dockray, Penrith, born around 1818. He was registered at 35 Ashdown Road, St. Pancras, London in 1871. With his wife Jane, he brought up his family in St. Pancras; Richard, James, Jane, Eliza, George and Sophia. None of them carried on the reed organ business.
Most of the information on this firm was provided by Steve Poulton, who is researching the family history. Originally, Adam Clarke, later Clarke and Sons, were organ and harmonium builders of Kirton-in-Lindsey, Lincolnshire. It is believed that they had a factory on Wormwood Hill, possibly earlier (or a shop) in Market Place.
Steve noted that Samuel Clarke (b.1823) appears in census records and street directories as a cabinet maker and-or joiner from 1846. The earliest record found of the firm, ``Clarke & Sons'', is in the 1872 edition of White's History, Gazetteer & Directory of Lincolnshire. It lists Clarke Samuel, harmonium builder (C. & Sons) and joiner and cabinet maker of Market Place, h. Steep Hill. Kirton in Lindsey. Here ``h'' indicates their home address. There are similar listings for Samuel's eldest sons, Joseph and John, so we think the original firm comprised of these three people.
Joseph and John had moved to Yorkshire by 1881 but there were two more sons, Samuel Jnr. and Adam, who stayed in Kirton-in-Lindsey. They were recorded as self employed, joiner, and organ and piano tuner respectively, but seem to have worked for their father as well.
The firm came to an end in 1895 following the deaths of Samuel in 1894 and sons Adam and Samuel Jnr. the following year, all from consumption. Samuel Jnr's obituary, published 2/11/1895, says Mr. Samuel Clarke passed away on Tuesday in his 36th year, and his loss is a matter of general sorrow. He was the last representative of the firm of S. Clarke and Sons, organ builders, his father and brother having died within the previous twelve months. He was a clever workman, and proficient musician, and enjoyed everyone's good word.
The business was advertised for sale in 1896: The late Samuel Clarke and Sons, Kirton Lindsey. This old established business of [building?], cabinet making, harmonium and American organ building is for immediate disposal. Stock and tools at valuation. Apply Mrs. Clarke, Kirton Lindsey; or E. Smith, 46 Pilkington Street, Bolton, Lancashire.
Robert Pacey told me he had the label from a one rank reed organ by Clarke and also an advertisement of theirs. He noted that they built at least one pipe organ too. Laurence Elvin  notes they built or installed a small one manual organ in Baumber Church, Lincs. with two octaves of pedals which seems to be the only pipe organ to emanate from their workshops in the Market Place.
All the records found by Steve Poulton have Clarke & Sons listed on Market Place, Kirton-in-Lindsey, but Robert Pacey believes they were on Wormwood Hill until about 1930. He recalls a sign board on the side of a house above an adjoining single storey workshop. The premises on Market Place were probably lost when Samuel and his sons died, so someone may have bought the business and re-started it on Wormwood Hill. This still has to be investigated and confirmed.
An advert from c.1892 lists instruments as follows.
American Organs New Models! New Price! No.1. - 5 octaves, 1 knee swell - £4-10s No.2. - 3 stops (including Vox Humana) - £5 No.3. - As above, with more elaborate case - £5-10s No.6. - 8 stops, 2 complete rows of reeds, Grand Organ at knee, latest improvements - £8 Clarke & Sons Kirton Lindsey
The Cobden Pianoforte, American Organ and Harmonium Company, G. Linstead, 18 Eversholt Street, Camden Town, London.
G. Linstead is listed in DBOB as a reed organ builder working 1891-95 and registered at 297 Upper Street, Islington, London 1879-82.
A small harmonium bearing the above label appeared on e-Bay, 27/12/07. It was said to have ivory keys, handles at each end and china castors measuring 55'' wide x 31-1/2'' high x 12-1/2'' deep.
Piano and harmonium maker of 25 New Road, Rotherhide, London.
Piano and harmonium maker of 1 Herbert Road, Chooter's Hill, Woolwich.
Piano and harmonium maker of 113 Fenchurch Street, London.
Isaac Cool of Bristol and Cardiff worked at 46-47 Clarence Place, Newtown, Bristol from 1878 as an organ builder also making harmoniums.
James Cooper and Co. made the Chorister reed organ. They worked successively in Peabody Yard, Essex Road, Islington (1883), 70 Shepperton Road (1886), Greenman Street and Essex Road (1889). New North Road, Islington is also found on labels.
There seems to be some confusion as there is also record of a William Cooper working in 1893-1899 at 7-10 Peabody Court, Green Man Lane, Islington as a reed organ builder.
These instruments seem to be very rare, but Erik-Jan Eradus contacted me from Amsterdam in Mar'2011 to say recently I bought a ``broad reed organ'' made by James Cooper. It is built after 1886, according to the address written on the instrument. It is a pressure harmonium with (broad) reeds made by Turban & Cie. and the serial number is 5639.
Another one was seen recently on e-Bay *0773. This is a later one of rather dubious quality.
William R. Crabb was a harmonium maker at 147 Upper Kennington Lane, London. H. Crabb was also a well known concertina maker but may be no relation, he descended fro John and Charles Crabb.
See Chapter 6.
Harmonium makers of London. Further details unknown.
Thomas Croger was a maker of harmoniums and other instruments and parts. His premises were at 17 Devonshire Street, Queen's Square, London in 1859 and 483 Oxford Street in 1862 when he was declared bankrupt. He died in 1863 and was succeeded by his widow Emma who was still in business a later.
Croger made very early portable and normal harmoniums around 1842 and had a warehouse at 184 Whitechapel Road, London. He held patents for improvements to the harmonium which had been invented in France by Debain that same year.
It is likely that the manufacturing was continued by his son Richard who was at 483 Oxford Street, London in 1866. Croger's single manual 1 stop harmonium was advertised at £9, a 3 stop one in rosewood at £12.10s and a 10 stop instrument for £27. He was selling collabsible portable harmoniums with carrying cases in 1860 for 7 guineas and was one of the earliest manufacturers of such instruments. Later Croger concentrated on selling music and pianos from 140 Mile End Road, closing the Whitechapel premises in 1894. Richard Croger died in the autumn of 1895 and his own son continued the business until around 1910.
Charles Frederick Cullum of 76 Euston Road, London NW was a pianoforte, harmonium and musical instrument maker of note; the above label shows the royal arms. His firm was forced to move to 98 Euston Road in 1882 owing to the extension of the Midland Railway. The new showrooms, named the Midland Showrooms, moved to 108 Euston Road in 1886. Cullum held a British patent number 5,043 from 23/4/1885 for a piano combined with American organ. H.J. Cullum, a member of the family, was associated with the Imperial Piano and Organ Co. See also Cullum and Best in Chapter 27.
e-Bay item *3471
This instrument was advertised in Jan'2012 by a seller in Eastbourne who had owned it for 25 years. It is clearly a rather small but very well made harmonium. The stops are: Forte, Sourdine, Diapason 8', Expression, Diapason 8', Clarinette, Tremolo, Forte. The Clarinette is rather unusual in such a small instrument. It has a figured walnut piano style case with the large maker's label. The keys are ivory. The address on the label makes it pre-1882.
Charles Curtis was a harmonium and American organ manufacturer of 28-29 Baker Street, London. We note that Oetzmann and Co. had occupied 27 Baker Street from 1848-c.1880, see 21.24.
There is a very unusual instrument which carries a label having the address of 28 Baker Street. The company name is Anglo-Continental Pianoforte Company Limited. It has been for sale for some time and is located in Peterborough.
Stops are: 0 Forte, S Sourdine, 4 Basson, 3 Clairon, 2 Bourdon, 1 Cor Anglais, E Expression, 1 Flute, 2 Clarinet, 3 Fifre, 4 Hautbois, M Musette, C Voix Celeste, T Tremolo, 0 Forte
This instrument may not be by Curtis and may not even be English. We would like more information.
Harmonium maker of 143 Albany Road, London in 1850 moving to 3 Albany Road in 1855 and 368 Albany Road in 1863. Company name became D. Dale and Sons in 1871 and Samuel Dale in 1872. May have earlier made seraphines too.
The full story of the Spencer family is told in Chapter 16.2.
Edward Daniels of 65 Gooch Street, Birmingham advertised as a harmonium maker.
William Dawes of 2 Ridge Terrace and 56 Wade Lane, in Leeds city centre also had manufacturing premises at Bagby Mills c.1869. DBOB also gives addresses of Blackman Lane, Leeds c.1867 and 2 Kingson Grove, Leeds and Blenheim Place, Leeds c.1869. Dawes was an engineer and commission agent, and held several patents for improvements to pianos, harmoniums and organs among other things. Details of these are given by Ord-Hume . They refer to him as an organ and harmonium manufacturer, but this may be slightly exaggerated.
There was also a William Dawes piano maker in London c.1878 but there is no connection.
The ``Melody Attachment'' is a device, the operation of which silences all the notes of the chord played on the particular manual or stop to which it is attached, with the exception of the treble one. In its inversion it may be employed to silence all except the bass note of a stop or stops, and thus render possible pedal bass effects from a manual. For instance it might affect ranks 3, 4 and 5 as seen on an Alexandre harmonium.
These photos of early Mustel number 104 with the Dawes attachment are from Brian Styles.
The melody attachment, as applied to the harmonium, was invented by Dawes, and patented by him under the name of Soprano Coupler in 1864. The reverse effect, the double bass coupler, was patented by Dawes and Ramsden in 1868. Similar contrivances were applied to the harmonium by Howard, and Mason and Hamlin. Rev. Tony Newnham told me that his family actually had one of these rare Dawes harmoniums in their household when he was in his teens.
Archibald Ramsden provided a harmonium with the melody attachment for a command performance to Queen Victoria. Apparently she was so impressed that she bought the instrument immediately afterwards. Where is it now?
For information we know about Ramsden instruments fitted with the Dawes device, see Chapter 21.37.
Derbayne and Co. were piano and harmonium manufacturers of 41 Rathbone Place, London.
Dicks and Co. were piano and harmonium manufacturers of 70 Mortimer Street and Cavendish Square, London.
William Dodson of 85 Liverpool Road, Islington was a piano and harmonium manufacturer with works at 22 Bryan Street, Caledonian Road, London.
William H. Duffield established his business making harmoniums at Gloucester House, 108 Leighton Road, London in 1881. He went on to also make American organs and exported various models to India, South and West Africa and Tasmania. He later supplied the trade with parts.
Alexander Eason was a harmonium maker of 217-9 Kentish Town Road, London. He was awarded a gold medal at the 1871 London International Exhibition. This instrument was reported to be extremely small, being 40 1/2''x 14''x 30''high.
John Henry Ebblewhite of 4-5 (or 24) High Street, Aldgate, London were at one time concertina makers. We know of a harmoniflute with the Ebblewhite label, but it is probably a French import. We need more information about this firm.
Edward Enderby was an organ builder of 11 Church Street, Boston, Lincolnshire. He made some harmoniums in the early part of his career and was trading as Enderby and Son and a dealer in 1909.
See Chapter 4.2.
A photo of a harmonium by S. Farmer appears in Fritz Gellerman's database number 3787. It is similar in style to the early Stevens harmonium style B.
[Having looked at this more closely I believe it actually is by Stevens and so is included in Chapter 18.]
There was a John Farmer of 38 Goosegate, Nottingham noted as an organ builder and harmonium maker in 1857-60 when he was in court for debt. He applied for a patent in 1861.
Carles Fenton was a piano and harmonium manufacturer of 20 Culmore Road, Asylum Road, Peckham, London SE. From 1884 onwards he ceased production and was only a dealer.
Harmonium maker of 56 Burton Street, London. In July 1864 he advertised as making instruments from £5 ditto with pedals and 16' tone from £8.10s. Ord-Hume notes that this would have meant he was one of the earliest makers of a harmonium with a pedal board. He had premises at 4 Angel Place, High Street, Borough, London in 1868 and 58 Peckham Grove in 1869.
Henry and Richard Geake were organ and harmonium makers of St. Thomas and Westgate Street, Launceston. Also known as H. Geake and Sons it is possible that Henry was Richard's father.
James Gilmour and Co. of 158 Argyle Street, Glasgow had a patent for harmonium improvements in 1864 and showed two instruments at the Paris Exhibition of 1867. They were advertising patent improved harmoniums in the London Gazette of Oct'1866.
However on 12/7/1870 the London Gazette had the following entry: The estates of George Gilmour, Harmonium Manufacturer and Music Seller, no.58 Jamaica Street, Glasgow, were sequestrated on the 7th day of July, 1870, by the Court of Session. The first deliverance is dated 7th July, 1870. The meeting to elect the Trustee and Commissioners is to be held at twelve o'clock, noon, on Friday, the 15th day of July 1870, within the Faculty Hall, Saint George's Place, Glasgow. A composition may be offered at this meeting; and to entitle creditors to the first dividend, their oaths and grounds of debt must be lodged on or before the 7th day of November, 1870. The Sequestration has been remitted to the Sheriff Court of Lanarkshire, and a Warrant of Protection granted to the Bankrupt. All future advertisements relating to this sequestration will be published in the Edinburgh Gazette alone. G. and H. Cairns, W.S., Agents, 21, St. Andrew Square, Edinburgh.
It is currently not known if George was James's son.
Walter Graham, later Walter Graham and Sons (after 1908), was established at 24a Risinghill Street, Pentonville, London until 1896 and then Moon Street, off Theberton Street, Islington. The firm made harmoniums and American organs and was noted as having a steam works.
Tom Huygens sent me some additional information in Jan'2017. You mention the Moutrie family and their connection to the Collard family. Also the Graham brothers can be added to the relations.
William, Walter and Frederick Graham were pianoforte makers, organ builders and harmonium builders. Their father, and a younger brother were carpenters. They had a shop in Pentonville, where James Moutrie had his as well. Later, William Graham married Ann Jane Moutrie, James' daughter, and moved to Canada in 1904. Walter and Frederick continued the business possibly until the 1920s and Walter died in 1940.
I have no clue where to start looking for evidence, but my guess is that the three Graham brothers were apprentices or employees at the Moutrie workshop, before starting their own business. After James Moutrie died in 1886, his sons James and Robert left Pentonville and continued the business in Clerkenwell whilst the Grahams stayed in Pentonville.
Little Cawthorpe Church
Instruments by Walter Graham seem to be rather rare. A nice one in excellent working condition was found by Mark Jefford at St. Helen's Church in Little Cawthorpe near Louth. Looked after by The Churches Conservation Trust, the sound fills the small brick church when empty.
Mark did not find any serial numbers and didn't see any facts relating to the harmonium but the stops are Forte, Sourdine, Bourdon, Cor Anglais, Expression, Flute, Clarionet, Tremolo, Forte. Note the angled stop knobs reflecting the American style.
A maker of portable harmoniums at 81 Haggerston Road, London.
This instrument, said to be by Green of Kent, and serial number 256 of c.1880, is in the database of the Netherlands Harmonium Vereniging, number 350. It has an expression stop only.
John Gregory was a harmonium and accordion maker of 27 Lister Gate, Nottingham. One small instrument appeared on e-Bay in June 2005 for sale by a dealer in Merseyside. It was suggested that this might have been built around 1880 possibly by Walter Earthy of Camden Town (1880-1). We do not have a separate entry in any of the catalogues for Earthy so are listing this instrument here until further information is obtained. The vendor however also has no evidence for this statement. The name plate clearly states that J. Gregory had works in Camden Town.
The instrument has a solid walnut case and no stops.
Griffin of 171 Great College Street, London was awarded a bronze medal in the International Inventions Exhibition of 1885, catalogue no.3,543 for his harmoniums and was noted for his double sound board for reed organs.
A piano and harmonium maker of Cheap Street, Sherborne until 1883 when T. Grimes died. Mrs. Grimes continued the business until 1885.
[Grover, Luck and Avill sections need clarification]
James Grover of 26 St. Peter Street, Hackney Road, London and then at 112 Kingsland Road was an organ builder around 1855-70. He also built harmoniums.
Grover and Grover made pianos and harmoniums from around 1871 onwards at 157-9 Kingsland Road, London until taken over by Avill and Smart who ceased harmonium production. However W. and F. Grover of 150 The Grove, Stratford, London E. were again making pianos and harmoniums in 1887. The firm were also recorded at Ronalds Way, London N in 1904. Under the guidance of Douglas Grover (third generation) became the Bentley Piano Co. in 1906.
Grovers bought the Apollo works from W.V. Luck in 1885, see Chapter 21.10.
There was also a Grover and Wood of 62 Glengall Road, Old Kent Road, London c.1885-95. It is not clear if this was a related businesses.
Charles Hardy was an organ builder and harmonium maker of Lancashire Hill, Stockport who also had works at Penny Lane, Stockport and Old Road, Heaton Norris c. 1845. It is said that he built the organ for New Mills Weslyan Church in 1879. Charles died in 1888 and firm was continue by his son James who was born in 1859 and made organs until around 1906. He still had the premises at Lancashire Hill and also 141 Wellington Road North, Heaton Norris. James and his wife Charlotte I. has a son James Fred who continued the organ building tradition until around 1939. They also had a daughter Elsie W. recorded in 1891 as being 1 year old (Fred was only 4).
Alfred Joseph Harland began in 1879 as a piano maker at 76 East Road, off City Road, London and 106 Wenlock Street, New North Road, Hoxton, London at least until 1921.
He produced a very lightweight portable harmonium c.1904, a 18lbs probably the lightest made. It was designed for use overseas so was fitted with rivetted keys and treated leather bellows to avoid shock and insect damage. The only one that we have seen photos of was a 3-octave instrument in derlict condition.
William P. Hattersley (b.1838-) was the son of William Hattersley of London who was a Seraphine maker, see Chapter 3. He worked as a piano and harmonium factor at 10-14 Bow Street, Sheffield until 1883.
There is a bit more information in the 1871 census where the family were registered at 66 Montgomery [Terrace?] Road, Nether Hallam, just outside Sheffield.
William was married to Emily Hyde on 10/7/1862. His father was given as Isaac Hattersley working as a file hardener. [This does not seem right?] But they had children Annie (b.1864), Charles Wm. (b.1866), Maude (b.1868), William Hyde (b.1869), Clara (b.1871). They had a domestic servant named Mary Farrell.
Hattersley's advertised variously as follows in 1872.
The King of all Reed Instruments yet invented. W. Hattersley and Co's Celebrated Improved HARMONIUMS, for quality of touch, workmanship, improved action, etc., stand unequalled. These charming instruments have been compared side by side with the American organs, and pronounced superior at half the price. DRAWING ROOM MODEL. Full Organ Tone, with knee swell to Treble and Bass, all stops effective. 9 Stops, Walnut case, 17 guineas. 12 Stops, Burr Walnut case, 22 guineas. 13 " " " 26 " Lists of prices and testimonials free. W. Hattersley and Co., 10 and 12, Bow-street, Sheffield
FURTHER IMPROVEMENTS in HARMONIUMS. W. HATTERSLEY AND CO.'S CELEBRATED IMPROVED HARMONIUMS, pronounced by the profession to be the nearest approach in tone to the organ of any hitherto invented. This improvement produces a rich, full organ-like quality of tone, entirely free from all harsh or reedy sound, and by the careful voicing of the reedds, the articulation is fully equal in rapidity to the pianoforte. These instruments are manufactured by us for private sales only, and of the best materials and workmanship. W. Hattersley and Co, Harmonium Manufacturers, 10 and 12, Bow-street, Sheffield (late 95 and 107, Meadow-street). Lists of prices and testimonials free.
London Gazette, 22/9/1882: In the County Court of Yorkshire, holden at Sheffield. In the Matter of Proceedings for Liquidation by Arrangement or Composition with Creditors, instituted Joseph Walker Maudson of Bow Street and Rockingham Street, both in Sheffield, in the county of York, and of Beetwell Street, Chesterfield, in the county of Derby, Harmonium Manufacturer and Dealer in Pianofortes, trading as W. Hattersley and Co., and formerly in co-partnership with one William Hattersley (since deceased), and trading with him at the above addresses under the same style. Notice is hereby given, that a First General Meeting of the creditors of the above named person has been summoned to be held at the offices of Messrs. Cook, Collins, and Sayer, Solicitors, 21, Duke Street, Manchester Square, London, in the county of Middlesex, on the 3rd day of October, 1882, at eleven o'clock in the forenoon precisely. Dated this 16th day of September, 1882. G.J. Mellor, 83, Queen Street, Sheffield, Solicitor for the Debtor.
One instrument of his was advertised with around 100 other reed organs for sale on e-Bay, July 2006. This was the collection of the owner of Morrison's Woodwork and Antiques, USA who was retiring. It was described as W. Hattersley and Co.'s, Sheffield England, Improved Harmonium. c. 1880. number 26840.
I don't know if its the same one (but I suspect it is), an instrument with serial number 599 appeared again on e-Bay in Nov'2006. It was in Utah and described as having a walnut case of dimensions 36 1/4'' x42-1/2'' x17 1/4'' and said to have an estimated (antique) value of $ 5200. Its certainly a nice looking example but I am not convinced of the valuation in today's market.
St. Oswald's, Thornton Stewart, N. Yorks.
This harmonium by Hattersley is featured on Dave Webster's Flickr stream, see http://www.flickr.com/photos/davewebster14/5086474577/in/pool-619073@N25/.
It has a very similar case detail but a larger number of stops. Its slightly hard to read all the names from the photo as some are covered with tape, but a not very educated guess would suggest the following. Forte, ??, Double Diapason D, ??, Grand Jeu G, Expression E, ??, ??, Basson, Hautboy, Diapason, Voix Celeste C, Clarinette 2, Forte F.
Judging from the wear on the keys and the fact that some fronts have been replaced, I would guess that they are ivory. Its nice to see an instrument which appears to be still in use in its original location. Any more information about this or similar ones would be appreciated.
1M e-Bay *1764
This is a 2:3 rank harmonium, stops: Forte, Sourdine, Bourdon, Cor Anglais, Expression, Flute, Clarinette, Voix Celeste, Tremolo, Forte.
2M e-Bay *6255
A 2M harmonium in burr walnut with 18 stops and 2 knee swells. This is characteristic of larger English instruments as it has a wind indicator marked ``Soft-Increase-Loud'' similar to that found on Stevens harmoniums. It was for sale by ``Mary Mc'' on behalf of a church in Bury St. Edmunds. I had some correspondence and Mary told me the specification O Forte, 3 Clarion, D Dulciana, S Sourdine, 2 Bourdon, 2 Voix Humaine, 1 Cor Anglais, C Coupler, O Grandjeu, E Expression, C Coupler, O Forte, 1 Flute, 2 Clarinette, C Voix Celeste, T Tremolo, D Dulciana, 3 Fifre. Note that some of the stop labels had come adrift so may be in the wrong order.
Dimensions: w 2'6'' xl 4' xh 3'5''.
Samuel Hay was a piano, harmonium and organ manufacturer initially at 21 Bridge Street, Glasgow. He moved to various buildings around 91 Renfield Street from 1882 onwards and had possible showrooms or storage in Sauchiehall Street and Bath Street. Possibly dis-continued building reed organs in 1884 and probably continued to import high quality American built instruments.
The London Gazette of 19/11/1878 notes: The estates of Samuel Hay, Pianoforte, Harmonium, and Organ Maker and Tuner, Watch and Chronometer Maker, 21 Bridge Street, Glasgow, were sequestrated on the 13th day of November, 1878, by the Sheriff of Lanarkshire. The first deliverance is dated the 13th day of November, 1878. The meeting to elect the Trustee and Commissioners is to be held at twelve o'clock, noon, on Monday, the 25th day of November, 1878, within the Faculty Hall, Saint George's Place, Glasgow. A composition may be offered at this meeting; and to entitle creditors to the first dividend, their. oaths' and grounds of debt must be lodged on or before the 13th day of March, 1879. A Warrant of Protection has been granted to the bankrupt till the meeting for election of Trustee. All future advertisements relating to this sequestration will be published in the Edinburgh Gazette alone. D. and J. Hill, Writers, 73, Renfield Street, Glasgow, Agents.
There were also organ builders named James Hay and William Hay who were active in Bridge Street and other parts of Glasgow at the same time. It is not known if they were all related or in fact may have been branches of the same firm.
R. and E. Heath of 14 Crockherbtown, Cardiff, Wales were piano and harmonium makers until around 1906.
Thomas Higham was a harmonium maker and musical instrument dealer of 76 Bridge Street, Deansgate, Manchester registered in 1878.
See also Higham and Curran, reed organ builders in Chapter 22.
See Chapter 8.
Piano and harmonium maker of 105 New Oxford Street, London. One of the brothers was Charles Holderness who had several employees.
William Hopley was a piano and harmonium manufacturer of 58-60 Brunswick Road, Liverpool.
John Hoyland was a harmonium manufacturer and piano dealer (for Chappell Pianos) of Sheffield who made American organs from 1885 and later also made accordians and concertinas. He had premises at 23-5 Bow Street until 1891 and 114 Barker's Pool, Sheffield 1896-1906, also West Bank Lane and 21 Exchange Street.
Humphreys of London were best known as builders of reed organs (suction instruments). Their work is described in Chapter 10.
Henry Ivory had a firm of piano makers at York Road, Euston Road and Holborn Viaduct, London. A combined piano and harmonium made by them was illustrated in Pictorial World on 24/5/1879. There was also a John Ivory c.1866 who was a piano maker.
Richard William Jarrett of 1 Eleanor Road, London Fields, Hackey, London was an American organ and harmonium maker from around 1880. He later formed a partnership with John Goudge at London Wall, Moorgate Street. Goudge was also in London but little information is known. Jarrett and Goudge had three factories, at The Triangle, Mare Street, 401 Mare Street and 308 Mile End Road. Because of the Triangle Road connection they used a triangular transfer on their piano soundboards.
Other addresses recorded for Jarrett are 89, Navarino Road, Dalston, trading at the Steam Works, Pegwell Path, the Grove, Hackney, and at the Albion Hall, Albion Square, Dalston, Middlesex. He was bankrupt in 1889
ROS DB entry 2673 is a small oak cased folding organ built in 1903 with serial number 11581. It has 37 keys and no stops.
I only have one photograph of a manufacturer's label of Jeffreys and Wiltshire [?] of 88 Lower Rosomon Street, Clerkenwell, London. Does anyone know more about this firm?
F. Jones of 145 York Street, Battersea, London was a harmonium maker and instrument dealer. He apparently traded around 1881-1900. It is not known if he was any relation to G. Jones below.
George Jones (b.29/2/1832-d.1919) worked at 350 and 481 Commercial Road, London E. initially doing out-sourcing work for Charles Wheatstone's concertina business from 3 Crombies Road and 2 Lucas Place, both off the Commercial Road. He then became well known in the same business on his own account.
Jones reed organs were sold by Emanuel Myers, 27 Walworth Road, London, Musical Instrument Warehouse. Myers ran the company between 1869 and 1884, with the majority of the organs for sale being made by George Jones.
From 1857 Jones developed and built portable harmoniums which became very popular. Unfortunately Jones had no patent and his idea was copied by other firms. It is possible that they include Busson of Paris as he is known to have sold their instruments.
More of the history is here: www.concertina.com/makers/ including. In 1853 I commenced to make harmonium reeds. 1867 to make harmoniums. Made the first portable instrument for Mr.Turner, then of Cheapside, who I worked for for many years. Finding I could not keep up the demand for the portable, one was sent to France to a firm who improved on mine and had a very large sale...
My last effort was an improvement on the portable harmonium 1895. Owing to the many hinges being required for folding them there was a great leakage of wind. I therefore inserted a flexible tube each side to convey the wind from the feeders direct to the reservoir.
Sons Arthur George and Harry Sidney Jones took over the business in 1899, following their father's retirement. George Jones and Sons, as it became known, was however un-successful - one of he two sons even sold his share and emigrated. When the business failed completely in 1909 it was left to the original George to pay the debts.
1M folder e-Bay *6060
One of these very rare small harmoniums was offered for sale in Northampton Feb'2015. It has 3-1/2 octaves from FF-c'' and what look like Forte stops. Bellows are underneath the treadles and connected to the wind chest by rubber hoses.
Jones and Co. of Bristol are described in Chapter 22. There is evidence that they supplied instruments to the Salvation Army. Some of these were harmoniums. One was advertised on e-Bay *2035 in mid-2009 and was said to carry a label with the following details.
Harmonium Jones & Company 10 Park Street Honorable Mention 1865 BristolRob Allan